1 Elements and Case Citations
- The plaintiff must suffer a discernible physical injury;
- The physical injury must be caused by the psychological trauma;
- The plaintiff must be involved in the event causing the negligent injury to another; and
- The plaintiff must have a close personal relationship to the directly injured person.
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- The rest of the elements for this cause of action;
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- The statute of limitations; and
- The defenses to this cause of action.
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